A Beginner’s Guide to Writing Acceptance Testing for Lagom Microservices with Cucumber

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In software development, acceptance criteria is a way via which a client communicates their expectations to engineering team. Also, it acts as a list of conditions upon completion of which a software/app is marked as complete.

Since acceptance criteria is an important part of software development, it becomes important to determine that the acceptance criteria is met by the software or not. This sub-discipline of software development where a software is tested against the acceptance criteria is called, Acceptance Testing. In other terms, acceptance testing is a type of black-box testing performed on a software prior to it’s delivery.

In this blog, we’re going to look at Cucumber as a tool for writing acceptance tests of a Lagom microservice. The reason behind integrating Cucumber with Lagom is that Lagom helps us decompose our legacy monolith and build, test, and deploy entire systems of Reactive microservices. Since our monolith application is being decomposed, we need to make sure that it meets the business acceptance criteria. So, in order to do that in an automated fashion, we have selected Cucumber.

Add Cucumber to the POM

Now let’s see how to achieve this integration via an example:

For Maven:


Get Ready to Write a Scenario

While doing Acceptance Testing with Cucumber, concrete examples are used to specify what the Application is expected to do. For this Scenario(s) are created in Cucumber which are defined in .feature files, stored under src/test/resources/<package-name> (directory).

One such scenario, for our Lagom application, would be to Get Menu if it is available in a restaurant.

For this create get-menu.feature file under src/test/resources/com/knoldus/lagom/sample/restaurant/menu/impl directory:

Feature: Can I Get Menu?
  User wants to know whether he/she can Get Menu

  Scenario: User can Get Menu
    Given Restaurant has Menu
    When User asks for Menu
    Then User should Get Menu

Turn Scenario into Concrete Actions

After defining the scenario, the next step is to convert it in to code:


package com.knoldus.lagom.sample.restaurant.menu.impl;

import cucumber.api.CucumberOptions;
import cucumber.api.junit.Cucumber;
import org.junit.runner.RunWith;

@CucumberOptions(plugin = {"pretty"})
public class RunCucumberTest {


package com.knoldus.lagom.sample.restaurant.menu.impl;

import com.knoldus.lagom.sample.restaurant.menu.api.Item;
import com.knoldus.lagom.sample.restaurant.menu.api.MenuService;
import com.lightbend.lagom.javadsl.testkit.ServiceTest;
import cucumber.api.java.After;
import cucumber.api.java.Before;
import cucumber.api.java.en.Given;
import cucumber.api.java.en.Then;
import cucumber.api.java.en.When;
import org.junit.Assert;

import java.util.List;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutionException;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeoutException;

public class Stepdefs {
    private static final long TIMEOUT = 10L;

    private static ServiceTest.TestServer server;
    private static MenuService service;
    private static List<String> menu;

    public static void setUp() {
        server = ServiceTest.startServer(ServiceTest.defaultSetup().withCassandra());
        service = server.client(MenuServiceImpl.class);

    @Given("Restaurant has Menu")
    public void restaurant_has_Menu() throws InterruptedException, ExecutionException, TimeoutException {
        // Write code here that turns the phrase above into concrete actions
                .get(TIMEOUT, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
        //Waiting for data to get added in DB.

    @When("User asks for Menu")
    public void user_asks_for_Menu() throws InterruptedException, ExecutionException, TimeoutException {
        // Write code here that turns the phrase above into concrete actions
        menu = service.getMenu().invoke().toCompletableFuture().get(TIMEOUT, TimeUnit.SECONDS);

    @Then("User should Get Menu")
    public void user_should_Get_Menu() {
        // Write code here that turns the phrase above into concrete actions

    public static void afterClass() {
        if (server != null) {
            server = null;


Execute Scenario

The last step is to execute the scenario and see if it passes or not:

mvn clean test


Feature: Can I Get Menu?
User wants to know whether he/she can Get Menu

Scenario: User can Get Menu # com/knoldus/lagom/sample/restaurant/menu/impl/get-menu.feature:4
Given Restaurant has Menu # Stepdefs.restaurant_has_Menu()
When User asks for Menu # Stepdefs.user_asks_for_Menu()
Then User should Get Menu # Stepdefs.user_should_Get_Menu()

1 Scenarios (1 passed)
3 Steps (3 passed)

Now we have got our first scenario created in Cucumber for a Lagom micro-service.

So, I hope you all found this article useful in terms of Acceptance Testing of a Lagom Micro-service. If anyone wants to try the whole example, then the code can be downloaded from here – Lagom Cucumber Example.


  1. Cucumber: 10 Minute Tutorial

Written by 

Himanshu Gupta is a software architect having more than 9 years of experience. He is always keen to learn new technologies. He not only likes programming languages but Data Analytics too. He has sound knowledge of "Machine Learning" and "Pattern Recognition". He believes that best result comes when everyone works as a team. He likes listening to Coding ,music, watch movies, and read science fiction books in his free time.