Introduction to Google BigQuery:

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What Is Google BigQuery?

Google BigQuery is a Cloud Data warehouse and Google is running it. It is capable of analysing terabytes of data in seconds. If you know how to write SQL Queries, you already know how to query it however, there are plenty of interesting public data sets shared in BigQuery, ready to be queried by you.

You can access BigQuery by using the GCP console or the classic web UI, by using a command-line tool, or by making calls to BigQuery Rest API using a variety of Client Libraries such as Java, .Net, or Python.

Key Features of Google BigQuery :

why did Google release BigQuery and why would you use it instead of a more established data warehouse solution?

  • Ease of Implementation: Building your own is expensive, time-consuming, and difficult to scale. With BigQuery, you need to load data first and pay only for what you use.
  • Speed: Process billions of rows in seconds and handle the real-time analysis of Streaming data.

Google BigQuery Architecture :

BigQuery Architecture is based on Dremel Technology and Google is using it from last 10 years.

  • Dremel: BigQuery Architecture powerfully distributes openings to questions dependent upon the situation, keeping up with reasonableness among various clients who are for the most part questioning on the double. A solitary client can get large number of spaces to run their questions. It takes something other than a great deal of equipment to make your questions run quick. Dremel question motor controls the demand of BigQuery.
  • Colossus: BigQuery Architecture depends on Colossus, Google’s most recent age dispersed document framework. Each Google server farm has its own Colossus bunch, and every Colossus group has an adequate number of circles to give each BigQuery client great many devoted plates all at once. Giant additionally handles replication, recuperation (when circles crash) and appropriated administration.
  • Jupiter Network: It is the inside server farm network that permits BigQuery to isolate capacity and figure.

Data Model/Storage:

  • Columnar storage.
  • Nested/Repeated fields.
  • No Index: Single full table scan.

Query Execution

  • The query is implemented in Tree Architecture.
  • The query is executed using tens of thousands of machines over a fast Google Network.

BigQuery’s Columnar Database :

Google BigQuery Architecture utilises section based capacity or columnar stockpiling structure that assists it with accomplishing quicker question handling with less assets. It is the mama reason how Google BigQuery handles enormous datasets amounts and conveys incredible speed.

Line based capacity structure is utilised in Relational Databases where information is put away in columns since it is a productive way for putting away information for conditional Databases. Putting away information in segments is effective for logical purposes since it needs a quicker information understanding rate.

Assume a Database has 1000 records or 1000 sections of information. In the event that we store information straight based structure, questioning just 10 columns out of 1000 will take additional time as it will peruse every one of the 1000 lines to get 10 lines in the inquiry yield.

The Google Ecosystem :

BigQuery is a Cloud Data Warehouse that is a piece of Google Cloud Platform (GCP) and that implies it can without much of a stretch incorporate with other Google items and administrations.

Cloud Platforms is a bundle of many Google administrations used to store information, for example, Google Cloud Storage, Google Big-table, Google Drive, Databases, and different Data handling instruments.

BigQuery can handle every one of the information put away in these other Google items. Google BigQuery utilises standard SQL inquiries to make and execute Machine Learning models and incorporate with other Business Intelligence devices like Looker and Tableau.

Key Concepts of Google BigQuery :

Now, you will get to know about the key concepts associated with Google BigQuery:

1)Google BigQuery Working :

BigQuery is an information stockroom, inferring a level of centralisation. The inquiry we showed in the past segment was applied to a solitary datasets.

Nonetheless, the advantages of BigQuery become considerably more obvious when we do joins of datasets from totally various sources or when we inquiry against information that is put away external BigQuery.

Assuming you’re a power client of Sheets, you’ll likely see the value in the capacity to do all the more fine-grained research with information in your calculation sheets. It’s a reasonable improvement for Google to make, as it joins BigQuery with Google’s very own greater amount existing administrations. Beforehand, Google made it conceivable to break down Google Analytics information in BigQuery.

Such reconciliations could settle on BigQuery Architecture a superior decision on the lookout for cloud-based information stockrooms, which is progressively the way that Google has situated BigQuery. Public cloud market pioneer Amazon Web Services (AWS) has Redshift, however no generally involved apparatus for calculation sheets.

Microsoft Azure’s SQL Data Warehouse, which has been in review for quite a long time, doesn’t right now have an authority incorporation with Microsoft Excel, astonishing however it could be.

2) Google BigQuery Querying :

It’s architecture upholds SQL questions and supports similarity with ANSI SQL 2011. BigQuery SQL support has been reached out to help settled and rehashed field types as a component of the information model.

For instance, you can utilise GitHub public dataset and issue the UNSENT order. It allows you to emphasise over a rehashed field.

  name, count(1) as num_repos
  `bigquery-public-data.github_repos.languages`, UNNEST(language)
ORDER BY num_repos
DESC limit 10

3) Google BigQuery ETL/Data Load :

There are different ways to deal with load information to BigQuery. In the event that you are moving information from Google Applications – like Google Analytics, Google Ad words, and so on google gives a strong BigQuery Data Transfer Service. This is Google’s own infra-item information relocation instrument.

The expansive advances is extricate information from the information source, change it into an organisation that BigQuery acknowledges, transfer this information to Google Cloud Storage (GCS) lastly load this to Google BigQuery from GCS.

4) Google BigQuery Maintenance :

Google has figured out how to address a great deal of normal information stockroom worries by tossing significant degree of equipment at the current issues and accordingly killing them through and through. Dissimilar to Amazon Redshift, running VACUUM in Google BigQuery isn’t a choice.

Remember that by configuration, Google BigQuery is annex as it were. Meaning, while intending to refresh or erase information, you’ll have to shorten the whole table and reproduce the table with new information.

Nonetheless, Google has executed manners by which clients can decrease how much information handled.

Segment their tables by indicating the parcel date in their inquiries. Use special case tables to share their information by a characteristic.

5) Google BigQuery Security :

The quickest equipment and most developed programming are of little use in the event that you can’t entrust them with your information. BigQuery’s security model is firmly coordinated with the remainder of Google’s Cloud Platform, so taking a comprehensive perspective on your information security is conceivable.Working in parallel, the leaf nodes handle the nitty-gritty of filtering and reading the data. The results are then moved back down the tree where the mixers accumulate the results and send them to the root as the answer to the query.

it utilises Google’s Identity and Access Management (IAM) access control framework to appoint explicit consents to individual clients or gatherings of clients.

it additionally ties in firmly with Google’s Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) strategy controls, which can safeguard against clients who attempt to get to information from outside your association, or who attempt to send out it to outsiders.

6) Google BigQuery Features :

  • Just upload your data and run SQL.
  • No cluster deployment, no virtual machines, no setting keys or indexes, and no software.
  • Separate storage and computing.
  • No need to deploy multiple clusters and duplicate data into each one. Manage permissions on projects and datasets with access control lists. Seamlessly scales with usage.
  • Compute scales with usage, without cluster resizing.
  • Deployed across multiple data centres by default, with multiple factors of replication to optimise maximum data durability and service up time.
  • Stream millions of rows per second for real-time analysis.
  • Analyse terabytes of data in seconds.
  • Storage scales to Petabytes.

7) Google BigQuery Interaction :

A) Web User Interface

  • Run queries and examine results.
  • Manage databases and tables.
  • Save queries and share them across the organisation for re-use.
  • Detailed Query history.

B) Visualize Data Studio

  • View it’s results with charts, pivots, and dashboards.


  • It is a programmatic way to access it.

D) Service Limits for Google BigQuery

  • The concurrent rate limit for on-demand, interactive queries: 50.
  • Daily query size limit: Unlimited by default.
  • Daily destination table update limit: 1,000 updates per table per day.
  • Query execution time limit: 6 hours.
  • A maximum number of tables referenced per query: 1,000.
  • Maximum unresolved query length: 256 KB.
  • Maximum resolved query length: 12 MB.
  • The concurrent rate limit for on-demand, interactive queries against Cloud Big table external data sources: 4.

Google BigQuery Performance

It rose from Dremel, Google’s distributed query engine. Dremel held the capability to handle terabytes of data in seconds flat by leveraging distributed computing within a server less BigQuery Architecture.

it’s architecture allows it to process complex queries with the help of multiple servers in parallel to significantly improve processing speed.

Here, you will take a look at the 4 critical components of Google it’s performance:

  • Tree Architecture
  • Server less Service
  • SQL and Programming Language Support
  • Real-time Analytics

8) Use Cases :

You can involve it’s Data Warehouse in the accompanying cases:

Use it when you have inquiries that run over five seconds in a social information base. The possibility of BigQuery is running complex logical inquiries, and that implies it is a waste of time to run questions that are doing basic accumulation or sifting. BigQuery is reasonable for “weighty” questions, those that work utilising a major arrangement of information.
The greater the datasets and the more you’re probably going to acquire execution by utilising it .The datasets that I utilised was 330 MB (megabytes, rather than even gigabytes).
BigQuery is great for situations where information doesn’t change frequently and you need to utilise the reserve, as it has an implicit store. What’s the significance here?
You can likewise utilise it whenever you need to diminish the heap on your social data set. Logical inquiries are “weighty” and abusing them under a social data set can prompt execution issues.

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Udit is a Software Consultant at Knoldus . He has completed his Masters of Computer Applications from Vellore institute of Technology. He is enthusiastic ,hard-working and determine person with strong attention to detail and eager to learn about new technologies.